Gentelligent Components in their Lifecycle

TNT members involved in this project:
Dipl.-Ing. Benjamin Spitschan

For some objects, i.e. machine parts some data necessarily has to be known for a correct usage. For example, this might be an id, the name of the manufacturer or a list of ingredients, necessary for recycling. Those pieces of information should be kept together with the object. Tags attached to the surface are easy to read and to write but may be removed from the surface easily or may get lost. Thus, new ways for inherent data storage have to be found.

The project is dealing with a lot of different methods and searches for new applications. Our part of is to store data by using micro structures on drilled metallic surface. The structures are created during the drilling process. They consist of a groove with varying depth wrapped around the cylindric mechanical component.

Our task is to develop the data storage system. This includes choosing proper coding techniques and modulation methods for the writing. The main focus lies in developing an optical readout method to reconstruct the micro-structured surface. More precisely the depth run of the groove written in is determined.

The Data Storage System

For the whole storage system, the standard model for digital data transmission over a channel is used. Only the channel, where data may be disturbed or corrupted, differs from ordinary data transmission. Here it consists of the actuator's writing, the transmitted signal on the component’s surface and of the optical readout, which represents the reconstruction of that signal. The advantage of using this standard model is that source coding, channel coding and the modulation method may be re-used from existing systems.

Structures by Reflection

Our main approach uses the reflectance properties of the metal surfaces. Under the influence of directed light, depending on the position and orientation of the camera, surface parts with a specific steepness and orientation have maximal intensity. Thus, the depth from the groove is correlated to the width of the reflecting surface parts.

In the first step of the readout method, multiple surface images are stitched together to a cylindric projection of the mechanical component's surface. Next, the position and orientation of the groove is determined by evaluating the Power Spectrum Density of the image in vertical direction. Finally, the run of the groove is tracked with a Hidden Markov Model with a special regular topology.

Show recent publications only
  • Journals
    • Berend Denkena, Tobias Mörke, Max Krüger, Justin Schmidt, Haythem Boujnah, Johannes Meyer, Philipp Gottwald, Benjamin Spitschan, Maximilian Winkens
      Development and first applications of gentelligent components over their lifecycle
      CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, Elsevier, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 139-150, April 2014
    • Rolf Hockauf, Benjamin Spitschan, Tobias Mörke, Berend Denkena, Jörn Ostermann, Thilo Grove
      Die Zukunft der Bauteilidentifikation - Innovative Methode zur Nutzung oberflächeninhärenter Bauteilinformationen
      wt Werkstattstechnik online, Springer-VDI, Vol. 104, No. 11, pp. 753-756, 2014
    • Berend Denkena, Jörn Ostermann, Jens Köhler, Tobias Mörke, Benjamin Spitschan
      Product Identification by Machined Micro Patterns
      Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol. 7, No. 6, pp. 735-741, 2013
    • Berend Denkena, David Boehnke, Christian Spille, Ralf Dragon
      In-Process Information Storage on Surfaces by Turning Operation
      CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, Elsevier, Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 85-88, May 2008
    • Berend Denkena, Jörn Ostermann, Christian Becker, Christian Spille
      Mechanical Information Storage by Use of an Excited Turning Tool
      Annals of the German Academic Society for Production Engineering, Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft für Produktionstechnik, January 2007
  • Conference Contributions
    • Berend Denkena, Jörn Ostermann, Bernd Breidenstein, Tobias Mörke, Benjamin Spitschan
      Advanced machining and accessing of information by means of gentelligent micro patterns
      1st Joint International Symposium on System-integrated Intelligence: New Challenges for Product and Production Engineering, Hannover, June 2012
    • Ralf Dragon, Tobias Mörke, Bodo Rosenhahn, Jörn Ostermann
      Fingerprints for Machines - Optical Identification of Grinding Imprints
      33rd DAGM Symposium, August 2011
    • Ralf Dragon, Jörn Ostermann, Berend Denkena, Bernd Breidenstein, Tobias Mörke
      Data Storage in Gentelligent Components: A New Way for Self-Authentication
      2nd workshop "Self-X in Engineering", KI 2010, Karlsruhe, Germany, September 2010
    • Ralf Dragon, Christian Becker, Bodo Rosenhahn, Jörn Ostermann
      Reading from Scratch -- A Vision-System for Reading Data on Micro-Structured Surfaces
      31. DAGM Symposium, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer, Vol. 5748, pp. 402--411, Jena, Germany, September 2009, edited by Joachim Denzler and Gunther Notni and Herbert Süße
    • Berend Denkena, Isabel Steinbrenner, Jörn Ostermann, Ralf Dragon
      Machining Microstructures by means of a High-Dynamic Fast-Tool-Servo
      Proceedings of the 9th international conference of the european society for precision engineering and nanotechnology, Vol. 2, pp. 451-454, June 2009
    • R. Dragon, I. Steinbrenner, J. Ostermann, B. Denkena
      Digitale Dateinstrukturen auf gentelligenten Bauteilen
      Zweiter Workshop optische Technologien – HOT, Hannover, November 2008
    • Ralf Dragon, Isabel Steinbrenner, Jörn Ostermann, Berend Denkena
      Inherent Mechanical Data Storage on Micro-Structured Surfaces
      4th. IPROMS Virtual International Conference 2008, July 2008
    • Ralf Dragon, Jörn Ostermann
      Ein optisches Ausleseverfahren für bauteilinhärent gespeicherte Informationen
      Erster Workshop Optische Technologien – HOT, Hannover, November 2007
    • Berend Denkena, Jörn Ostermann, Christian Becker, Ralf Dragon, Christian Spille
      Struktureinbringung und Ausleseverfahren zur Informationsspeicherung
      Erstes SFB 653 Kolloquium, April 2007
  • Technical Report
    • R. Dragon
      Optical Readout of Information on Micro-Structured Surfaces
      Technical Report, October 2008